Main Article Content
Background: In Nigeria, an infection caused by Schistosoma haematobium has been known to be endemic especially among residents along Rivers, and it is responsible for considerable public health problems.
Aims: This study aimed at assessing the prevalence and intensity of infection among the vulnerable communities.
Study Design: A cross-sectional study involving 1,404 participants within age bracket 5-55 years old and above, in ten communities across five Local Government Areas along River Benue in Adamawa State, was conducted. Urine samples were collected from randomly selected study subjects and were examined using centrifugation and sedimentation techniques. The intensity of infection was ascertained as eggs/10mls of urine and values expressed as Mean ± SD. Data on demography were obtained by structured questionnaires. The simple percentage was used and Chi-square as well to ascertain the associations between prevalence and other parameters. P<0.05 was considered as significant.
Results and Discussion: The overall prevalence and intensity of infection were 23.2% and 513±0.05 eggs/10 ml of urine respectively. Kabawa had the highest infection rate and intensity with 12.4% and 80±0.02 respectively. The lowest was recorded in Kangle (12.3% and 24±0.82 eggs/10 ml), with a significant association between parasite intensity and community (p<0.05). Gender-related prevalence and intensity revealed that males (25.5% and 289±4.66 eggs/10 ml) were more affected than the females (20.8% and 206±4.49 eggs/10 ml). Participants within age bracket 5-14 years old had the highest prevalence (36.6%) and intensity (142±0.005 eggs/10 ml), while the lowest was recorded among age group 45-54 years old with 9.0% and 42±0.040 eggs/10 ml. Prevalence and intensity of infection was highest among Subjects fetching water from River/Streams (31.8%, 46±0.080 egg/10 ml of urine), whereas the least were observed among borehole fetchers (13.8% and 241±0.302 egg/10 ml of urine). Occupational related prevalence and intensity were highest among Fishers with 35.0% and 188±0.012 egg/10 ml of urine. Chemotherapy and Health Education should be advocated across the study area.
Conclusion: This study has established that Schistosoma haematobium infection is prevalent among the residents living along the River Benue in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Although infection was more among the males than the females, there was no significant difference, but there were significant differences in prevalence and intensity with age, the source of drinking water, and occupation.
Anderson RM, Turner HC, Farrell SH, Truscott JE. Studies of the transmission dynamics, mathematical model development and the control of schistosome parasites by mass drug administration in human communities. Adv Parasitol. 2016;94:199–246.
Gray DJ, Ross AG, Li YS, McManus DP. Diagnosis and management of schistosomiasis. Bmj. 2011;342:d2651.
World Health Organization. Global Burden Disease Estimate Index, Geneva; 2018.
Lozano R, Mohsen N, Kyle F, Stephen L. Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012;380(9859):2095-212.
World Health Organization. Schistosomiasis Fact Sheet; 2014.
Salwa D, Hesham M, Ithoi I, Jamaiah I, Awatif MA, Abdulhamid A, Hany S, Wahib MA, Mona A, Fatin N, Nabil A, Johari S. Prevalence and risk factors of Schistosomiasis among Hausa communities in Kano State, Nigeria. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2016;58:54.
Hotez PJ, Asojo OA, Adesina AM. Nigeria ''Ground Zero'' for the high prevalence neglected tropical diseases. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 2012;6:54.
World Health Organization. Schistosomiasis: Progress report 2001-2011 and strategic plan 2012-2020. Geneva; 2013.
Adenowo AF, Oyinloye BE, Ogunyinka BI, Kappo AP. Impact of human schistosomiasis in Sub-Saharan Africa. Braz. J. Infect. Dis. 2015;19:196–205.
Ekpo UF, Mafiana CF. Epidemiological studies of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, Nigeria identification of high-risk communities. Niger J Parasitol. 2004;25:111–119.
Adebayo AA, Tukur AL. Adamawa State in Maps publications Department of Geography, Federal University of Technology Yola, in co-operate with paraclete publications. A Division of Paraclete and Sons Nigeria; 1999.
National Population Commission. National Population Census; 2006.
Cheesbrough M. Laboratory-practice-in-tropical-countries-part-1. 2. 2nd Ed. Cambrigde University Press; 2009.
Ladan MU, Abubakar U, Abubakar K, Bunza MDA, Nasiru M, Ladan MJ. Gender and age specific prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in selected villages near a dam site in Gusau Local Government Area. Zamfara State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology. 2011;32:57-61.
Naphtali RS, Barka SJ, Yaro MB, Oriakpono JE. Epidemiolgical study of schistosomiasis in numan local government area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences. 2017;12(5):53-57.
Obadiah HI, Idu ME, Omodu EA, Shenge MF, Ameh MO, Mwakyoga A. Studies on Schistosoma haemtobium infection in school -aged children in some parts of Benue State, Nigeria; 2018.
Oyetunde TS, Alexander B, Odaibo. Urogenital schistosomiasis and urological assessment of hematuria in preschool-aged children in rural communities of Nigeria. Journal of Pediatric Urology. 2014;10:88-93.
Hany S, Hesham MA, Mohammed AKM, Yvonne ALL, Rohela M, Johari S. Prevalence and associated factors of schistosomiasis among children in Yemen: Implications for an effective control programme. PLoS Neglected Tropical Disease. 2013;7(8):e2377.
Nale Y, Galadima M, Yakubu SE. Index of potential contamination for urinary schistosomiasis in Zaria, Nigeria. Niger J Parasitol. 2003;24:95–101.
Ivoke N, Ivoke ON, Nwani CD, Ekeh FN, Asogwa CN, Atama CI. Prevalence and transmission dynamics of Schistosoma haematobium infection in a rural community of southwestern Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Trop Biomed. 2014;31:77–88. [PubMed]
Evans DS, King JD, Eigege A, Umaru J, Adamani W, Alphonsus K. Assessing the WHO 50% prevalence threshold in school-aged children as indication for treatment of urogenital schistosomiasis in adults in central Nigeria. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013;88:441–4451.
Amuta EA, Houmsou RS. Prevalence, intensity of infection and risk factors of urinary schistosomiasis in pre-school and school-aged children in Guma Local Government Area, Nigeria. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2014;7(1):34-39.
Mbata TI, Orji MU, Oguoma VM. High prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in a Nigerian community. African Journal of Biomedical Research. 2009;12(2):101-104.
Duwa MR, Oyeyi TI, Bassey SE. Prevalence and intensity of urinary schistosomiasis among primary school pupils in Minjibir Local Government Area of Kano State, Nigeria. Bayero J Pure Appl Sci. 2009;2:75–78.
Houmsou RS, Amuta EU, Sar TT. Profile of an epidemiological study of urinary schistosomiasis in two Local Government Areas of Benue State, Nigeria. International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research. 2012;1(1):39-48.
[Accessed Dec 18 2018]
Bolaji OS, Elkanah FA, Ojo JA, Ojurongbe O, Adeyeba OA. Prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma haematobium among school children in Ajase-Ipo, Kwara State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical. 2015;5(43):6−11.
Ezhim M, Oti V, Goriya K, Gloria Z, Dlama J. Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among Primary School children in a Northern Nigerian Population. International Journal of Advanced Research. 2015;3(11):511-519.
Ojurongbe O, Risqat Sina-Agbaje O, Busari A, Okorie PN, Ojurongbe TA, Akindele AA. Efficacy of praziquantel in the treatment of Schistosoma haematobium infection among school-age children in rural communities of Abeokuta, Nigeria. Infectious Diseases of Poverty. 2014;3:30.
Bala AY, Ladan MU, Mainasara M. Prevalence and intensity of urinary schistosomiasis in Abarma Village, Gusau, Nigeria: A preliminary investigation. Science World Journal. 2012;7(2):1-4.
Shashie G, Agersew A, Sisay G, Zeleke M, Berhanu E. Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis and associated risk factors among Abobo Primary Children in Gambella Regional State, Southwestern Ethiopia: A cross sectional study. Journal of Parasite and Vector. 2015;8:215.
Nkegbe E. Sex prevalence of schistosomiasis among school children in five communities in the lower river Volta basin of South Eastern Ghana. African Journal Biomedical Research. 2010;13:87–88.
Samie A, Nchachi DJ, Obi CL, Igumbor EO. Prevalence and temporal distribution of Schistosoma haematobium infections in the Vhembe District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2010;42(9):7157-7164.
Moyo VB, Changadeya W, Chiotha S, Sikawa D. Urinary schistosomiasis among preschool children in Malengachanzi, Nkhotakota District, Malawi. Malawi Medical Journal. 2016;28(1):10-14.
Olulabi A, Oluwasogo, Olukunle B, Fagbemi. Prevalence and risk factors of Schistosoma haematobium infections among primary school children in Igbokuta Village, Ikorodu North Local Government, Lagos State. Journal of Nursing and Health Science. 2013;2(6):62-68.
Kiran S, Dalhatu M, Jitendra S. Current status of schistosomiasis in Sokoto, Nigeria. Journal of Parasite Epidemiology and Control. 2016;1:239-244.
Rukeme MN, Emmanuel TI, Olubumi AO, Margaret AM. Urinary schistosomiasis in school aged children of two rural endemic communities in Edo State, Nigeria. Journal of Infectious and Public Health. 2017;11(3):384-388.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2017.09.012Get rights and content
Dennis OU, Celestine OE, Onwuliri FOU, Osuala, Ikechukwu NS, Dozie F, Opara N, Ucheamaka CN. Endemicity of schistosomiasis in some parts of Anambara State. Academic Journal of Medical Laboratory and Diagnosis. 2013;4(5):54-61.