Main Article Content
A survey was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods in free range domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus) in Amansea and Ifite communities, in Awka Capital Territory, Anambra state. A total of 112 G. domesticus comprising of 42 Adult males, 30 adult females and 40 juveniles were examined during a house to house survey for ectoparasitic arthropods. The study was carried out between June and September, 2014. The domestic fowl were caught in their roosting places at night and were examined for ectoparasitic arthropod infestation. 73.21% prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods on the chicken was recorded. Male adult chicken had higher prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods than adult females and juvenile chicken. Six species of ectoparasitic arthropods namely; Argas persicus (29.46%), Menopon gallinae (23.21%), Dermanysus gallinae (16.07%), Lipeurus caponis (12.5%), Echidnophaga gallinacea (10.71%) Goniocotes gallinae (5.36%) were recovered from infested chicken. Argas persicus with the prevalence (29.46%) was the most prevalent parasite species. Amansea community had a higher prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods than Ifite community. The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). In conclusion, the present study has provided information on the various ectoparasitic arthropods of domestic chicken in Amansea and Ifite communities. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods between the two communities. Therefore, further study is needed to determine the impact of infestation on the health and productivity of these birds, and evaluation of cost benefit of various control strategies need to be investigated.
Ikpeze OO, Amagba IC, Eneanya CI. Preliminary survey of ectoparasites of chicken in Awka, Southeastern Nigeria. Animal Res. Intern. 2008;5(2):848-851.
FAO. Nigeria national livestock survey. Food and Agricultural Organisation, Geneva; 1989.
Oluyemi JA, Adene DF, Ladoje GO. A comparison of indigenous fowl with rock under conditions of disease nutritional stress. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 1978;11: 191-202.
Horming GS, Rasmussen AS, Permin A, Isgaard MB. Investigation of the influence of helminthes parasites on vaccination of chickens against Newcastle disease virus under village conditions. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 2003;35:415-424.
Nwosu CC. characterization of the local chickens of Nigeria and its potential for eggs and meat. Nat. Ani. Prod. Res. 1979;43:35-52.
Fakae BB, Umeonzu TM, Orajiaka LJE. Gastrointestinal helminthes infestations of the domestic fowls during dry season in Eastern Nigeria. J. of Africa Zoology. 1991;105:503-508.
Adene DF, Dipeolu OO. A survey of blood and ectoparasites of domestic fowls in Ibadan, Western state of Nigeria. Bulletin of Animal Health Production in Africa. 1975;23:333-335.
Colebroke E, Wall R. Ectoparasites of livestock in Europe and the Mediterranean region. Veterinary Parasitology. 1991;120: 251-274.
Richards W, David S. Veterinary ectoparasites: Biology, pathology and control. 2nd Edition. Blackwell science LTD, Oxford; 2011.
Soulsby EJL. Helminthes, Arthropods and Protozoa of domesticated animals, 7th Edition. Bailliere Tindall and Cassel LTD, London; 1982.
Permin A, Hansen J. The epidemiology, diagnosis and control of poultry parasites. FAO report, Rome, Italy; 1998.
Swai ES, Kessy M, Sanka P, Bwanga S, Kaaya JE. A survey on ectoparasites and haemoparasites of free-range indigenous chickens of northern Tanzania. Livestock Rural Research and Development (LRRD); 2010.
Arends JJ. External parasites and poultry pests. In diseases of poultry. 11th Edition. Edited by Calnek WB, John H, Beard WC, Mc Dougald LR and Saif YM. Iowa state press, Blackwell publishing company, Ames, Iowa; 2003.
Moyer BR, Drown DM and Clayton DH. Low humidity reduces ectoparasite pressure: Implications for host life history evolution. Oikos. 2002;97:223- 228.
Mukaratirwa S, Khumalo MP. Prevalence of chewing lice in free-range chickens from selected rural localities of Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. International Journal of Applied Research and Veterinary Medicine. 2012;10(1):85-89.
Permin A, Bisgaard M. A general review on some important disease in free-range chickens. Poultry as a tool in poverty eradication and promotion of gender equality. Proceedings of workshop, Tune landhoskole, Denmark; 1999.
Nnadi PA, George SO. A cross sectional survey to parasites of chickens in selected villages in the sub humid zone of South Eastern Nigeria. J. Parasitol. Res. 2010; 14:18-24.
Banda Z. Ectoparasites of indigenous Malawi chickens. Aust. J. Basic and Applied Sci. 2011;5(6):1454-1460.
Bala AY, Anka SA, Waziri A, Shehu H. preliminary survey of ectoparasites infesting chickens (Gallus domesticus) in four areas of Sokoto metropolis. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science. 2011;19(2):173-180.
Wall R, Shearer D. Veterinary Entomology. 2nd Edition, Blackwell sci. LTD, Oxford; 1997.
Shanta IS, Begum N, Anisuzzaman AS, Bari M, Karim MJ. Prevalence and clinic-pathological effects of ectoparasites in backyard poultry. Bangladesh J. Vet. Med. 2006;4(1):19-26.
Surman A, Sandeep N, Suneel KS. Prevalence of Menopon gallinae linn. (Insect, phthiraptera, menopon idea, amblycera) upon poultry birds (Gallus domesticus) of selected locality of district Chamoli Garhwal (Uttarakhand), India. Journal of Applied and Natural Science. 2013;5(2):400-405.
Sabuni ZA, Mbuthia PG, Maingi N, Nyaga PN, Njagi LW, Bebora LC, Michieka JN. Prevalence of ectoparasite infestation in indigenous free-living village chicken in different agro ecological zones in Kenya. Livestock Rural Research and Development (LRRD); 2010.
Biu AA, Agbede RI and Peace P. Tudies on ectoparasites of poultry in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology. 2012;28:69-72.
Tanasak C, Ruangrat B, Sarin S, Jarunee S, Plern Y, Kecha C, Juthiathip J, Charoonluk S, Parntep R. A survey of ectoparasitic arthropods on domestic animals in Tak province, Thailand. Soutwest Asian of Tropical Medicine and Public Health. 2009;40(3):453-442.