Main Article Content
Length frequency data of silver sillago, Sillago sihama (Forsskål) were collected and measured from the fisherman catches using beach seines and handlines, at random, during 2012 from the Karachi coast of Pakistan. In this study, 1846 fish individuals (male and female combined) were collected ranging from 10 to 24 cm with dominant individuals ranged 12 to 16 cm (total length). Weight ranging was measured from 9 to 110 g. The above length-frequency data were analysed for the estimation of growth and mortality parameters. The power coefficient b of length-weight, the relationship was estimated at 2.9177. The estimated von Bertalanffy growth, function parameters of 25.20 cm (L∞) and 1.00 year-1 (K) were calculated by ELEFAN method equipped on FiSAT computer package. With length-converted catch curve analysis, the total mortality rate (Z) and its 95% confidence interval were 2.42 (2.174-2.669) year-1. The natural mortality rate (M) was 1.84 year-1 calculated with Pauly’s equation (the annual average seawater temperature was 27°C). Therefore, the fishing mortality rate was Z-M= 0.5787year-1. The exploitation ratio (E) estimated as F/Z=0.239 which is less than biological reference point (0.5), therefore it indicates that the stock of S. sihama was exploited at managed.
Mohsin M, Mu Y, Memon AM, Mehak A, Shah SB, Kalhoro MT, Baset A. Capture fisheries production and its economic role in Pakistan. Indian Journal of Geo Marine Sciences. 2017;46(06):1110-5.
Liao B, Zhang K, Shan X, Chen X, Baset A, Memon KH, Liu Q. Application of Bayesian surplus production model and traditional surplus production model on stock assessment of the southern Atlantic albacore (Thunnus alalunga). Indian Journal of Geo Marine Sciences. 2017; 46(05):922-8.
Qasim SZ. An appraisal of the studies on maturation and spawning in marine teleosts from the Indian waters. Indian Journal of Fisheries. 1973;20(1):166-81.
Jaiswar AK, Chakraborty SK, Swamy RP. Studies on the age, growth and mortality rates of Indian scad Decapterus russelli (Ruppell) from Mumbai waters. Fisheries research. 2001;53(3):303-8.
Nayar KN. Studies on the growth of the wedge clam, Donax (Latona) cuneatus Linnaeus. Indian Journal of Fisheries. 1955;2(2):325-48.
Simpfendorfer CA, McAuley RB, Chidlow J, Unsworth P. Validated age and growth of the dusky shark, Carcharhinus obscurus, from Western Australian waters. Marine and Freshwater Research. 2002; 53(2):567-73.
Liao B, Liu Q, Zhang K, Baset A, Memon AM, Memon KH, Han Y. A continuous time delay-difference type model (CTDDM) applied to stock assessment of the southern Atlantic albacore Thunnus alalunga. Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology. 2016;34(5):977-84.
Hirth HF. Some aspects of the nesting behavior and reproductive biology of sea turtles. American Zoologist. 1980;20(3): 507-23.
Abdurahiman KP, Nayak TH, Zacharia PU, Mohamed KS. Length-weight relationship of commercially important marine fishes and shellfishes of the southern coast of Karnataka, India. NAGA, World Fish Centre Quarterly. 2004;27(1&2):9-14.
Adams PB. Life history patterns in marine fishes and their consequences for fisheries management. Fishery Bulletin. 1980;78(1): 1-2.
Bal DV, Rao KV. Marine fisheries of India. Tata McGraw-Hill; 1990.
Biswas SP. Manual of Methods in fish Biology, South Asian Publisheres PVR. LTD., India; 1993.
Brandt SB, Mason DM, Macneill DB, Coates T, Gannon JE. Predation by alewives on larvae of yellow perch in Lake Ontario. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. 1987;116(4):641-5.
Christensen V, Pauly D. Placing fisheries resources in their ecosystem context. EC Fish. Coop. Bull. 1997;10:9-14.
Baset A, Liu Q, Liao B, Waris A, Ahmad I, Yanan H, Qingqing Z. Population Dynamics of Saddle Grunt Fish, Pomadasys maculatus (Bloch, 1793) from Pakistani Waters. Bioprocess Engineering. 2020;4(1):1-8.
Froese R. Cube law, condition factor and weight–length relationships: History, meta‐analysis and recommendations. Journal of Applied Ichthyology. 2006; 22(4):241-53.
Haddon M. Modeling and quantitative methods in fisheries. Second edition. London: Chapman & Hall/CRC Press. 2011; 449.
Karim E, Qun LI, Mahmood MA, Baset A, Hoq ME, Shamsuzzaman MM, Das A. Assessment of some demographic trends of Spadenose shark (Scoliodon laticaudus) of the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh. Indian Journal of Geo Marine Sciences. 2017; 46(10):1986-95.
Beverton RJ. A review of methods for estimating mortality rates in fish populations, with special reference to sources of bias in catch sampling. Rapp Proces-verb Reun Cons Int Explor Mer. 1956;140:67-83.
Liao B, Liu Q, Wang X, Baset A, Soomro SH, Memon AM, Memon KH, Kalhoro MA. Application of a continuous time delay-difference model for the population dynamics of winter-spring cohort of neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii, Lesueur 1821) in the North-west Pacific Ocean. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 2016; 96(7):1527-34.
Pauly D, Munro JL. Once more on the comparison of growth in fish and invertebrates. Fishbyte. 1984;2(1):1-21.
Papaconstantinou C, Kapiris K. Distribution and population structure of the red shrimp (Aristeus antennatus) on an unexploited fishing ground in the Greek Ionian Sea. Aquatic Living Resources. 2001;14(5):303-12.
Pitcher TJ. A bumpy old road: Size‐based methods in fisheries assessment. Handbook of Fish Biology and Fisheries: Fisheries. 2002;2:189-210.
Martin‐Smith KM. Length/weight relation-ships of fishes in a diverse tropical freshwater community, Sabah, Malaysia. Journal of Fish Biology. 1996;49(4):731-4.
Sparre P. Introduction to tropical fish stock assessment. Part 1. Manual. FAO Fish. Tech. Paper. 1998;306:1-407.
Tongnunui P, Sano M, Kurokura H. Feeding habits of two sillaginid fishes, Sillago sihama and S. aeolus, at Sikao Bay, Trang Province, Thailand. La mer. 2005;43:9-17.
Wootton RJ. Ecology of teleost fishes. Springer Science & Business Media; 2012.
Baset A, Liu Q, Hanif MT, Liao B, Memon AM, Mohsin M. Estimation of maximum sustainable yield using production modeling: A stock appraisal of Indian Oil Sardine (Sardinella longiceps) from Pakistani Waters. Pakistan Journal of Zoology. 2017;49(2):521-8.
Nadkarni VB. Structure of the kidney of marine fishes in relation to their habitat. Recent advances in zoology in India. Delhi: Zoological Survey of India. 1963:157-70.
Reddy CR, Neelakantan B. Age and growth of Indian whiting Sillago sihama (Forskal) from Karwar waters. Mahasagar. 1992;25(1):61-4.
Le Cren ED. The length-weight relationship and seasonal cycle in gonad weight and condition in the perch (Perca fluviatilis). The Journal of Animal Ecology. 1951;1: 201-19.
Laevastu T, Favorite F. Fishing and stock fluctuations. Fishing News; 1988.
Jayawardane PA, McLusky DS, Tytler P. Estimation of population parameters and stock assessment of Penaeus indicus (H. Milne Edwards) in the western coastal waters of Sri Lanka. Asian Fisheries Science. 2002;15(2):155-66.
Radhakrishnan N. A contribution to the biology of Indian Sand Whiting Sillago sihama (Forskal). Indian Journal of Fisheries. 1957;4(2):254-83.
Krishnamurthy KN, Kaliyamurthy M. Studies on the age and growth of sandwhiting Sillago sihama (Forskal) from Pulicat Lake with observations on its biology and fishery. Indian Journal of Fisheries. 1978;25(1-2):84-97.
Letourneur Y. Length-weight relationship of some marine fish species in Reunion Island, Indian Ocean. Naga, The ICLARM Quarterly. 1998;21(4):37-9.
Harrison TD. Length-weight relationships of fishes from South African estuaries; 2001.
Taskavak E, Bilecenoglu M. Length–weight relationships for 18 Lessepsian (Red Sea) immigrant fish species from the eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 2001;81(5):895-6.
Erguden D, Turan C, Gurlek M. Weight–length relationships for 20 Lessepsian fish species caught by bottom trawl on the coast of Iskenderun Bay (NE Mediterranean Sea, Turkey). Journal of Applied Ichthyology. 2009;25(1):133-5.
Shamsan EF, Ansari ZA. Study of age and growth of Indian sand whiting, sillago sihama (Forsskal) from Zuari estuary, Goa.
Daliri M. Length-weight and length-length relationships, Relative condition factor and Fulton? s condition factor of Five Cyprinid species in Anzali wetland, southwest of the Caspian Sea. Caspian Journal of Environ-mental Sciences. 2012;10(1):25-31.
Banerji SK, Krishnan TS. Acceleration of assessment of fish populations and comparative studies of similar taxonomic groups.
Gowda HH, Joseph PS, Mohan Joseph M. Growth, condition and sexuality of the Indian sandwhiting, Sillago sihama (Forskal). InThe First Indian Fisheries Forum. Proceedings. Asian Fisheries Society. 1988;229-232.
Cao JX, Huang Y, Du T. Observation on microstructure of peripheral blood cells in Sillago Sihama Forskál. Journal of Guangdong Ocean University. 2008;6.
Liu JD, Zhu LX, Lu HS. Estimation of growth and mortality parameters of the silver sillago (Sillago sihama) in Beibu Gulf. Journal of Zhejiang Ocean University (Natural Science). 2010;1:017.
Royce WF. Theory of Fish Population Dynamics as the Biological Background for Rational Exploitation and Management of Fishery Resources. George V. Nikolskii. Translated from the Russian edition (Moscow, 1965) by JES Bradley. R. Jones, Ed. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh; 1969.
Pitcher TJ. A bumpy old road: size‐based methods in fisheries assessment. Handbook of Fish Biology and Fisheries: Fisheries. 2002;3(2):189-210.
Nikolsky GV. Theory of the fish population dynamics as the biological background for rational exploitation and management of fisheries resources. Translated by Bradley Oliver and Boyd; 1969.
Nikolʹskiĭ GV. Theory of fish population dynamics: As the biological background for rational exploitation and management of fishery resources. Oliver & Boyd; 1969.
Chambers RC, Trippel EA, editors. Early life history and recruitment in fish populations. Springer Science & Business Media; 2012.