Open Access Original Research Article

Potential of Five Local Plant as Protectant against Hide Beetle, Dermestes maculatus Degeer Infesting Dry Cat Fish; Clarias gariepinus Burchell

A. Jatau, Q. Majeed, M. A. Yahaya, M. B. Sokoto

Asian Journal of Research in Zoology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajriz/2018/v1i229672

Efficacy of varying amounts of five selected local plant namely : Balanite aegyptiaca, Eugenia aromatica, Piper guineense, Ocimum gratisimum, and Ziziphus mauratania against the mortality, oviposition, progeny emergence and  weight loss of dried fish due to infestation by  Dermestes maculatus was studied under ambient conditions. The plant were pulverised into powders and applied as 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 g per 50 g of dried fish. Three pairs of newly emerged adults by  were inoculated into each of the treated fish in a beaker, arranged in a Complete Randomized Design  in the laboratory. The result showed all the plant powders tested evoked significant mortalities of adults at the highest concentration (6) after 3 and 7 days of post-treatment when compared with untreated control. The rate of oviposition was drastically suppressed by all plant powders, especially at higher concentration.  The number of adults emerged were significantly lower than control at (p>0.05).  Similarly, all the plant's powders significantly prevented weight loss at highest concentration after 12 weeks of post-treatment periods. These results have shown that tested plants demonstrated potential ability against adults hide beetle infesting dried fish.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Larvicidal Potential of the Leaf Extracts of Hyptis suaveolens Poit against Anopheles Mosquitoes

Amaka, John I., Attah, D. Daniel, Obisike, Victor U., Benedict, Aboje G.

Asian Journal of Research in Zoology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajriz/2018/v1i229676

This study evaluated the larvicidal potential of the ethanolic and aqueous leaf extracts of Hyptis suaveolens Poit on the 4th larval instar of laboratory-reared Anopheles spp at varying concentrations of 0.1ml, 0.2ml, 0.3ml, 0.4ml and 0.5ml for specified periods of 24hrs, 48hrs and 72hrs. Qualitative phytochemical screening of the leaf extracts identified bioactive components like alkaloid, saponin, phenol, anthraquinone and flavonoid. The LC50 and LC90 values obtained indicate that the ethanolic leaf extracts of Hyptis suaveolens Poit had the greatest toxicity on the test organisms within 24hrs of exposure at median LC50 value of 0.485ml compared to the LC50 value of 0.625ml by its aqueous extract. The relative median potency estimates indicate that within 24 hrs, the ethanolic Hyptis suaveolens Poit was 0.161 times more potent on the test organism than aqueous Hyptis suaveolens Poit. The result of this research, therefore, underscores the efficacy of Hyptis suaveolens Poit as an eco-friendly alternative in Anopheles mosquito control. It is, therefore, recommended that quantitative phytochemical screening, application of column chromatography as well as thin layer chromatography be carried out on the extracts to isolate and purify toxic phytochemicals with larvicidal potentiality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Toxicity Effect of Some Plant Extracts against Larvae of Anopheline (Diptera: Culicidae) in the North Eastern Nigeria

R. S. Naphtali, J. S. Ngwamah, K. B. Shitta, A. Atimi, E. Kadala

Asian Journal of Research in Zoology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajriz/2018/v1i229679

Owing to the adverse effect of synthetic pesticides, there has been increasing need to search for natural and environment friendly pesticides of plant origin as agents for control of vector of mosquito-borne diseases. This study was aimed to investigate the larvicidal activities of North eastern botanicals against vector of mosquitoes-borne diseases. Five mosquito repellent plants used by the indigenous people of north eastern, Nigeria were analysed for their effectiveness against Anopheline mosquitoes. The methanol and petroleum ether were analysed for their phytochemical properties. The methanol and petroleum ether extracts were investigated for phytochemical compounds with larvicidal activities against anopheline 3rd instar larvae through using deferent extracts of methanol and petroleum ether of different concentration that ranged from 50-200 ppm.  The larvicidal were observed after every six hours for total period of 36 hours. The extracts of Hyptis suaveolens and Azadirachta indica of both methanol and petroleum ether extracts showed high toxicity effects against anopheline. The test plants contained phenol, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, azadrachtin, glycosides saponins, terpenoids and steroids.

In conclusion, the present plant extracts have potentials for development of new and safe control products for mosquitoes. As natural occurring insecticides, these plants derived materials that could be useful as an alternative for synthetic insecticides.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Observation of the Use of Combi 10 and Filter Paper in the Diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium Infections

V. U. Obisike, F. O. Ikpe, E. U. Amuta

Asian Journal of Research in Zoology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajriz/2018/v1i229681

Urinary Schistosomiasis is neglected tropical disease (NTDs) caused by the trematode, Schistosoma haematobium. This Study was designed to comparatively observe the use of Combi 10 and filter paper in the diagnosis of Schistosoma hameatobium, and to determine the prevalence and intensity of the Infection among Primary School Pupils in Makurdi Metropolis. A survey involving 202 pupils from four different primary schools within the Makurdi Metropolis was conducted. Urine samples were collected from pupils between the ages 5 to 19 and examined for hematuria and Ova of Schistosoma haematobium using Medi Test Combi 10 and Polycarbonate Filters in Urine Syringe Filtration Technique (USFT) respectively. The prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium based on microscopic examination of Filter papers was 25.7% while prevalence of Hematuria was 35%. Prevalence of Proteinuria was observed to be 50% Infection Intensity varied from Light to heavy. In general infection was higher among males (26.3%) than females (25.8%; P>0.05) although statistically non-significant. The age specific prevalence ranged from 11.1% to 40% in 5-9 years and 15-19 years respectively (P >0.05), and showed no significant difference. There was also a strong positive correlation between the use Medi-test Combi 10 reagent strips and Poly membrane Filtration technique.  A total of 111 urine samples were positive to haematuria using combi 10 while only 52 urine samples were positive to S. haematobium using poly membrane filter paper, hence correlation is significant at 0.05 level. The above finding shows that S. haematobiumis prevalent among primary school pupils and the use of Combi 10 and Filter paper are both diagnostic tools that can be used in S. haematobium diagnosis. They can both ascertain the prevalence of the disease will provide a guide for the treatment and eradicating of the infection. Hence, decisive control measures including administration of praziquantel to pupils are needed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Histopathological Impact of Profenofos on Ovary of the Freshwater Fish Notopterus notopterus

Safiya Tazeen, R. S. Kulkarni

Asian Journal of Research in Zoology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajriz/2018/v1i229682

The presence of pesticide in the environment, owing to extensive use in agriculture and their low degradation capacity, are the potential toxicological concern for fish. Histological studies have been extensively used as biomarker in the assessment of the health of fish exposed to the pesticides, both in the laboratory as well as in the field studies. In the present study adult freshwater teleost fish Notopterus notopterus of nearly similar weight and length were exposed to sub lethal concentration of 0.7 pp LC50 of profenofos (Curacron 50% EC) during reproductive phase. For histological changes the treated fish groups were compared with the control group. Marked changes such as atretic follicles, degenerative changes in oocyte were observed.