Open Access Original Research Article

Histopathological Changes in the Kidney of the Freshwater Bronze Featherback Fish, Notopterus notopterus (Pallas, 1769) Exposed to Profenofos

Safiya Tazeen, R. S. Kulkarni

Asian Journal of Research in Zoology, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/ajriz/2019/v2i230061

The impact of profenofos, an organophosphate pesticide on the kidney of Indian freshwater teleost fish Notopterus notopterus was evaluated. The experimental group was exposed to sublethal concentration of profenofos at 7, 14 and 21 days. Histopathological changes due to the toxicity of pesticide in experimental and control kidney of the fish were observed by killing the animal every 7, 14 and 21 days. The kidneys were fixed in Bouin’s solution, dehydrated in graded ethanol, infiltrated in xylene, sectioned at 4-6 µ and stained in haematoxylin and eosin. Haemorrhage, oedema, fragmented glomeruli and elongated kidney tubules in experimental fish, and no effect were however observed in control fishes. It is concluded that profenofos is significantly toxic to the fish.

Open Access Original Research Article

Species Composition and Diurnal Activity Rhythm of Tabanids (Diptera: Tabanidae) at the Ivindo National Park and Its Environs

Affiri Odzame Joseph-Marie, Sevidzem Silas Lendzele, Zinga Koumba Christophe Roland, Mounioko Franck, Koumba Armel Aubin, Rodrigue Mintsa, Acapovi-Yao Genevieve Lydie, M’batchi Bertrand, Jacques François Mavoungou

Asian Journal of Research in Zoology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajriz/2019/v2i230062

An entomological prospection to show the species composition and diurnal activity of tabanids was carried out using 15 Vavoua traps, during the rainy season (25th Sept-5th Oct and 21st Oct-9th Nov 2018), in the secondary forest [Ivindo National Park (INP)] and Village-Town sites in and around the biosphere reserve Ipassa-IRET Makokou in Gabon. In total, 839 tabanids were caught with 747 recorded at INP and regrouped under 11 species of the genus Tabanus [T. taeniola (57.76%),               T. ricardae (26.32%), T. par (5.54%), T. ruficrus (3.74%), T. socius (3.74%), T. disjunctus (2.49%), T. marmorosus (0.28%) and T. obscurehirtus (0.14%)]. However, two species of the genus Chrysops [C. dimidiatus (70.83%) and C. silaceus (29.17%)] and one species of the genus Haematopota [H. pluvialis (100%)] were only identified at INP. While in the Village-Town sites, 92 tabanids were caught and regrouped under five species of the genus Tabanus [T. ruficrus (14.13%), T. taeniola (9.78%), T. ricardae (73.91%), T. par (1.09%), and T. marmorosus (1.09%)]. Tabanids were more abundant in the forest (7.12 tabanid/trap/day) as compared to the Village-Town (0.77 t/t/d) with a statistically significant difference (P<0.05). At INP, tabanids showed a unimodal activity pattern with peak attained between 12-14H and in the anthropized milieu (14-16H) and dominated by females.

Open Access Original Research Article

Abundance and Diversity of Birds in the Ogbese Forest Reserve, Ekiti State, Nigeria

O. O. Ogunyemi

Asian Journal of Research in Zoology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajriz/2019/v2i230063

A study was carried out to evaluate the species composition and relative abundance of bird species of the natural and plantation forest of Ogbese Forest Rserve, Ekiti State. The study was conducted from April, 2010 to February, 2011 covering both wet and dry seasons. Sample sites were stratified based on the vegetation types and transect count techniques was employed for the evaluation. A total of 52 bird species consisting of 47 resident and 5 immigrant species was recorded. The species composition of birds during the wet and dry seasons was not significantly different. The natural forest vegetation had the highest species diversity and evenness. The relative abundance score of species during the Wet and dry seasons was variable in both habitats. The result of this study has shown that the natural and plantation vegetation types of Ogbese Forest Reserve, Ekiti State. The heterogeneity of flora species in the natural forest compared to the plantation forest might be responsible for the variation. The management of birds in the reserve should take cognisance of the vegetation types for effective conservation of bird species which are resident in the reserve.

Open Access Original Research Article

Abundance and Diurnal Activity Rhythm of Stomoxys spp. in a Wildlife-human Interface in Makokou (North East-Gabon)

Sevidzem Silas Lendzele, Affiri Odzame Joseph-Marie, Zinga-Koumba Christophe Roland, Mounioko Franck, Koumba Armel Aubin, Rodrigue Mintsa Nguema, Acapovi-Yao Genevieve Lydie, M’batchi Bertrand, Jacques François Mavoungou

Asian Journal of Research in Zoology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajriz/2019/v2i230064

The aim of the study was to determine the abundance and diurnal activity rhythm of Stomoxyinae at the Ivindo National park and its environs, 14 Vavoua traps were set-up during the rainy season (25th Sept-5th Oct and 21st Oct-9th Nov 2018), in two habitats: the forest, a part of the Ivindo National Park (INP) and village-Town. In the Village-Town habitat, 62141 Stomoxys were caught and regrouped under five species notably 36502 S. omega (58.74%), 24045 S. n. niger (38.69%), 1312 S. xanthomelas (2.11%), 265 S. n. bilineatus (0.43%) and 17 S. calcitrans (0.03%). At the INP, 4645 Stomoxys were caught and regrouped under four species notably 2364 S. n. niger (50.89%), 2153 S. omega (46.35%), 114 S. xanthomelas (2.45%) and 14 S. n. bilineatus (0.30%). Stomoxys were more abundant in the village (517.84 s/t/d) as compared to the INP (44.24 s/t/d). There was a statistically significant difference (P<0.05) in apparent density of Stomoxys in the prospected biotopes. Stomoxys spp. showed a unimodal activity pattern in Village-Town environments and forest sites of the INP. The diurnal activity trend of Stomoxys spp. was sex dependent. This base line data will be used in Stomoxys spp. management in the environs of the INP.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Intensity of Urinary Schistosomiasis among Residence: A Case Study in River Benue, Adamawa State, North Eastern Nigeria

R. S. Naphtali, J. S. Ngwamah

Asian Journal of Research in Zoology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajriz/2019/v2i230065

Background: In Nigeria, an infection caused by Schistosoma haematobium has been known to be endemic especially among residents along Rivers, and it is responsible for considerable public health problems.

Aims: This study aimed at assessing the prevalence and intensity of infection among the vulnerable communities.

Study Design: A cross-sectional study involving 1,404 participants within age bracket 5-55 years old and above, in ten communities across five Local Government Areas along River Benue in Adamawa State, was conducted. Urine samples were collected from randomly selected study subjects and were examined using centrifugation and sedimentation techniques. The intensity of infection was ascertained as eggs/10mls of urine and values expressed as Mean ± SD. Data on demography were obtained by structured questionnaires. The simple percentage was used and Chi-square as well to ascertain the associations between prevalence and other parameters. P<0.05 was considered as significant.

Results and Discussion: The overall prevalence and intensity of infection were 23.2% and 513±0.05 eggs/10 ml of urine respectively. Kabawa had the highest infection rate and intensity with 12.4% and 80±0.02 respectively. The lowest was recorded in Kangle (12.3% and 24±0.82 eggs/10 ml), with a significant association between parasite intensity and community (p<0.05). Gender-related prevalence and intensity revealed that males (25.5% and 289±4.66 eggs/10 ml) were more affected than the females (20.8% and 206±4.49 eggs/10 ml). Participants within age bracket 5-14 years old had the highest prevalence (36.6%) and intensity (142±0.005 eggs/10 ml), while the lowest was recorded among age group 45-54 years old with 9.0% and 42±0.040 eggs/10 ml. Prevalence and intensity of infection was highest among Subjects fetching water from River/Streams (31.8%, 46±0.080 egg/10 ml of urine), whereas the least were observed among borehole fetchers (13.8% and 241±0.302 egg/10 ml of urine). Occupational related prevalence and intensity were highest among Fishers with 35.0% and 188±0.012 egg/10 ml of urine. Chemotherapy and Health Education should be advocated across the study area.

Conclusion: This study has established that Schistosoma haematobium infection is prevalent among the residents living along the River Benue in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Although infection was more among the males than the females, there was no significant difference, but there were significant differences in prevalence and intensity with age, the source of drinking water, and occupation.