Open Access Short Research Article

Study on the Prevalence of Ectoparasitic Arthropods on Free Range Gallus domesticus in Two Communities in Awka

C. C. Nwadike, P. C. O. Ilozumba, C. J. Gaius

Asian Journal of Research in Zoology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajriz/2019/v2i430077

A survey was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods in free range domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus) in Amansea and Ifite communities, in Awka Capital Territory, Anambra state. A total of 112 G. domesticus comprising of 42 Adult males, 30 adult females and 40 juveniles were examined during a house to house survey for ectoparasitic arthropods. The study was carried out between June and September, 2014. The domestic fowl were caught in their roosting places at night and were examined for ectoparasitic arthropod infestation. 73.21% prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods on the chicken was recorded. Male adult chicken had higher prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods than adult females and juvenile chicken. Six species of ectoparasitic arthropods namely; Argas persicus (29.46%), Menopon gallinae (23.21%), Dermanysus gallinae (16.07%), Lipeurus caponis (12.5%), Echidnophaga gallinacea (10.71%) Goniocotes gallinae (5.36%) were recovered from infested chicken. Argas persicus with the prevalence (29.46%) was the most prevalent parasite species. Amansea community had a higher prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods than Ifite community. The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). In conclusion, the present study has provided information on the various ectoparasitic arthropods of domestic chicken in Amansea and Ifite communities. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods between the two communities. Therefore, further study is needed to determine the impact of infestation on the health and productivity of these birds, and evaluation of cost benefit of various control strategies need to be investigated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical, Histopathological and Mutagenic Changes Following the Co-administration of Antihelminthic and Antimalarial Drugs in Wistar Rats

A. A. Obiajunwa, E. T. Idowu, O. A. Otubanjo

Asian Journal of Research in Zoology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajriz/2019/v2i430071

Aim: To determine the effects of antimalaria and antheminthic drugs combination in the incidence of histopathological alteration and biochemical modulations in liver and kidney of albino rats.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was undertaken at the Zoology Department University of Lagos Akoka Lagos Nigeria.

Methodology: A total of twenty (25) Male adult albino rats of 13-15 weeks old were divided into 5 groups of 5 rats each and daily oral administration of human therapeutic doses of praziquantel (PZQ 50 mg/kg body weight) separate and in combination with ivermectin (IVM 0.4 mg/kg body weight), albendazole (ALB 15 mg/kg body weight) and Artemether-lumefanthrine (ACT 140 mg/kg body weight) was administered with the  group which serve as the control receiving 1ml distilled water. Toxic effects due to these treatments were investigated using histopathological, biochemical and mutagenic indices at day 8th and 15th of the study.

Results: Biochemical assessment revealed significant reduction in AST, ALT, ALP and potassium in the treatment group compared to the control. Increase in the level calcium, Albumin and bicarbonate were also observed in treatment groups. Histopathological assessment of the liver showed a general incidence of focal inflammation along the portal tract area, but did not show any differential severity across treatment groups except for single PZQ treatment group which were characterized by fatty infiltration. A general occurrence of mesangial damage and glomerula injury was observed in kidney tissues. Renal lesions were more severe in single PZQ + IVM treatment groups while mild lesions characterized renal tissue from PZQ+ACT treatment groups. Mutagenic effects as indicated by the high incidence of sperm head abnormalities was recorded across combination treatments especially in PZQ+ IVR and PZQ+ ACT groups.

Conclusion: Findings suggest that combination therapies are synergistic and could result in nephrotoxicity, antidiuretic effects, dehydration and mutagenicity at human therapeutic doses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mound Distribution and Soil Transformation by Macrotermes bellicosus in Bagudo and Augie in Kebbi State, Nigeria

H. A. Shindi, H. M. Bandiya, M. M. Yahaya, A. Aminu

Asian Journal of Research in Zoology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajriz/2019/v2i430072

The study was carried out to determine the distribution and soil transformation by Macrotermes bellicosus species. Two local government areas of Kebbi State namely; Bagudo and Augie were selected for the study. Field survey and proximate analysis was used for the study, data generated were analyzed using descriptive (Means) and inferential (ANOVA) statistics. Mounds were manually counted; where distance, height and basal circumferences were measured using measuring tape. Results obtained showed mound size was significantly different (P˂0.05) among the study area. Physical characteristics of mounds such as distance, basal circumference, height: were also significantly different (P˂0.05) in all the locations. Dry land and wet land showed no significant (P˃0.05) difference exhibited in physical characteristics. Results indicated significant (P˂0.05) difference in Cation exchange capacity (C.E.C), sand, silt, and clay, and all mineral elements in study locations. Mound soils differed: (P˂0.05) significantly in Cation exchange capacity (C.E.C), sand, silt, and clay and all the elements in study locations: In conclusion, termites: can be considered to be cheap agents of soil amendments which can help farmers in improving soil fertility.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Survey of Urinary Schistosomiasis among Secondary School Students in Jalingo Town, Jalingo Local Government Area, Taraba State

Zakki Yula Hosea, Liamngee Kator, Jacob John Geraji

Asian Journal of Research in Zoology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajriz/2019/v2i430073

This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of urinary Schistosomiasis among secondary school students in Jalingo town, Jalingo local government area, Nigeria. Ordinary centrifugal sedimentation technique was used and the deposits were examined microscopically. Data collected were analyzed using chi square. Out of the 200 samples examined, 37 (18.5%) had infection, with no significant difference (p>0.05) in infection rates between males (21.1%) and females (15.1%). Among the two schools sampled School A had the highest prevalence (22.0%) followed by School B (15.0%) with no significant difference (p>0.05). Children aged 9-12 years (60.0%) were more infected than those aged 19-21 (13.0%) (p<0.05).There was a close relationship between haematuria and positive urine samples as 72.7% of the students tested positive excreted blood in their urine (p<0.05). Major risk factors were poor hygiene, ignorance and poverty. The results of this study show that secondary school students harbor infection and are a source of transmission of Schistosomiasis in the study area. Planning and provision of drugs for treatment should be considered in disease prevention and control programmes. Community participatory health education should be encouraged as the first step in reducing infection and transmission of the disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Foetal Wastage at the Oja-tuntun Slaughterhouse in Ogbomoso Town, South Western Nigeria: A Three Year Retrospective Study

Caesar E. Anyaku, Ebele J. Ajagun, Abisola O. Oshagbemi

Asian Journal of Research in Zoology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajriz/2019/v2i430074

Aim: This survey was carried out to determine the prevalence of foetal wastage amongst cattle and goat; and its associated economic loss.

Study Design: A retrospective survey was carried out using the abattoir records of Owode Veterinary Hospital, Ogbomoso, were relevant data relating to foetal wastage was retrieved.

Place and Duration: The study was conducted in Ogbomoso, Oyo State, South-Western Nigeria from January 2014 to December 2016.

Methodology: A three year retrospective survey (January 2014 to December 2016) based on the Veterinary Hospital records were used to determine the extent of foetal wastage as well as associated economic loss. 

Results: A total of 11,903 cattle comprising 8,482 (71.3%) males and 3,421 (28.7%) females; 1,269 goats comprising of 791 (62.3%) males and 78 (37.7%) females were slaughtered over the study period. A total of 244 foetuses (cows) and 55 foetuses (does) were recovered during the period of study with a calculated prevalence rate of 7.1 and 11.5% respectively. Analysis of the economic loss over the study period was estimated at approximately N25,254,000 ($69,762) and N440,000 ($1,215) for cattle and goats respectively. With a calculated average annual loss of N8,418,000 to foetal wastage which is too huge for any developing country.

Conclusion: Reoccurring slaughter of gravid females and its resultant high foetal wastage must be discouraged; so as to meet demand for meat and meat-related products as well as boost the nation’s economy. Hence the need for all hands to be on deck to develop as well as implement local strategies aimed at reducing future economic losses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Helminths from the Fingernails of Primary School Pupils in Makurdi Benue State

Zakki Yula Hosea, Liamngee Kator, Oga Ohekpe Philomena

Asian Journal of Research in Zoology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajriz/2019/v2i430075

Intestinal helminth infections are widely distributed throughout the world and children are the most affected population. The present study was carried out to assess the prevalence of intestinal helminths in children of primary schools in Makurdi, Benue State. Sterile cotton balls soaked in 10% formol saline were used to swab the underneath of the fingernails to collect 200 nail dirt samples from the school pupils of different ages and gender. The parasites were isolated from the dirt of both gender and prevalence was recorded. The direct mount method was used in the identification of parasites. The prevalence of parasites was presented as descriptive statistics, while the relationship between several variables (such as age and gender) and the presence of parasites were determined by Chi-square test. The level of significance used was P<0.05. The highest prevalence was observed for Ascaris lumbricoides (35%) whereas the lowest prevalence was found for Strongyloides stercoralis (15%). The other parasite found was Ancylostoma duodenale (30%). Overall prevalence was found to be 10%. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic helminths was found to be higher in males with 13.19% than in females with 7.34%. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of the infection among gender. The distribution of intestinal parasitic helminths among the selected primary schools indicated that there was no significant difference in the occurrence of the helminths between the schools. The occurrence of fingernail parasites among children in primary schools can cause chronic infections which can negatively affect all aspects of children’s health.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Preliminary Study on the Batraco-herpetological Fauna in the Forest Refuge of Albertine Rift, the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Franck Masudi Muenye Mali, Anne Laudisoit, Michel Komba Yendema, Gabriel Badjedjea Babangenge, Morgan Mukobya, Corneille Ewango, Pionus Katuala, Dudu Akaibe, Gédéon Ngiala Bongo, Justin Asimonio Anio; Jean Paul Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua; Gembu Tungaluna

Asian Journal of Research in Zoology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajriz/2019/v2i430076

Aims: Amphibians and reptiles of the Albertine Rift in the Congolese part of the country are poorly documented. The objective of this research was to perform a preliminary inventory of the diversity of amphibians and reptiles in the region.

Study Design: This study was designed following scientific expeditions related to studies on chimpanzees. Litterature search revealed that amphibians and reptiles are poorly documented in these habitats.

Place and Duration of Study: Amphibians and reptiles were collected in 12 days between April and May 2017 in Dzu (N01.94753°; E030.88848°), Dzoo (N01.92742°; E030.89179°), Nzerku 3 (N01.94119°; E030.90612°) and Nzonzo (N01.90352°; E30.91030°). 

Methodology: To collect amphibians and reptiles, we used the most minimally invasive method. This method consists of capturing 1 specimen for a known species and a maximum of 5 specimens for those for an unknown species. The surplus specimens were released into their environment. During the night between 7 pm and 9 pm, amphibians were captured by hand using a flashlight. Snakes had been captured using the snake stick. All captured specimens were scanned with a camera and then identified using amphibian and snake species identification keys. Necropsies (tongue and muscle tissue) stored in Eppendorf tubes containing alcohol (90-75%). Specimens had been fixed with formaldehyde (10%), before being preserved in alcohol (75%) in the long term. Tissues were shipped for molecular analysis to the University of Texas (United States).

Results: In the four study sites, 149 amphibian specimens were collected, consisting of 19 species, 9 genera and 8 families. According to the reptiles, 27 specimens divided into 21 species grouped into 19 genera and 11 families were recorded.

Conclusion: The batraco-herpetological fauna in the Albertine Rift in Ituri province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is rich and diversified, hence this deserves the attention of other researchers.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Burden of Multiple Intestinal Helminthes among Primary School Children in Doma, Doma Local Government Area, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

I. A. Alaku, E. A. Omudu, N. G. Imainde, D. D. Attah

Asian Journal of Research in Zoology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajriz/2019/v2i430078

Intestinal parasitic infections have always been an important public health problem in the tropics particularly in developing countries such as Nigeria for example. A cross-sectional survey involving 440 schools going children of both sexes aged 6 - >12 years was conducted in 4 primary schools at a different location in Doma Local Government Area (LGA) of Nasarawa State, Nigeria, between September 2015 to February 2016 to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites. Of the 440 samples examined 155 (35.22%) were infected with different intestinal parasites. The parasites observed included Entamoeba histolytica (6.59%), bookworm (5.22%), Ascaris lumbricoides (53.40%), Trichuris trichiuria (0.45%), E. coli (4.77%) and mixed infection of Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm (7.27%) with Ascaris lumbricoides having the highest prevalence. Doma south primary school 38 (34.54) Islamiyya nursery/primary school and Doma west primary school had the lowest prevalence with 36 (32.72%) and 34 (30.90%) respectively. An overall prevalence of (35.22%) intestinal parasitic infection in school going children is moderately high and of public health concern. There is need to intensified integrated control measure to reduce or completely eradicate the intestinal parasitic infection in school pupils.