Open Access Short Research Article

Evaluation of Enzymatic Activity in the Transformation of Nectar into Honey in Indigenous Rockbee, Apis dorsata F.

M. V. Balasubramanyam

Asian Journal of Research in Zoology, Page 13-19
DOI: 10.9734/ajriz/2020/v3i430096

Enzymes form integral part and play decisive role in biological Systems and metabolic network. The present studies delve on the role of enzymes viz., invertase, amylase, glucose oxidase and catalase in nectar-honey transformation during May 2019 to April 2020. Data on enzymatic activity in all the five stages  related to honey formation from nectar i.e., floral nectar (fn), honey crop of foragers (hf), honey crop of house bees (hh), unsealed honey cells (uh) and sealed honey cells (sh) was evaluated. Invertase in fn and sh cells was found minimum of 0.00 ml and maximum of 42.40 ml, respectively. Similarly, amylase in the fn was least (0.00 ml) and highest in sh (16.01 ml) and catalase was observed to be 0.001 ml in floral nector and highest in sealed honey cells i.e., 16.01 ml and 4.96 ml,respectively. Accordingly, glucose oxidase in fn and sh cells was minimum of 0.00 ml and maximum of 6.68 ml respectively. Correspondingly, catalase in the fn was least (0.00 ml) and highest in sh (4.96 ml).  The analysis of variance of invertase and amylase was significant at 1 % level (p<0.01), whereas glucose oxidase and catalase Were statistically non-significant at 1 % level (p<0.01). Results have confirmed that the sources of all enzymes are instigated from hypopharyngeal, post-cerebral, thoracic, labial and mandibular glands of foragers and house bees which are accountable for honey formation. Further, each enzyme is substrates specific which are discussed in ensuing paper.

Open Access Short Research Article

Investigation on Some Biological Aspects of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L. 1758) from Khashm El-Girba Fish Market, Sudan: Length Weight Relationship, Condition Factor and Sex Ratio

Mutasim Yousif Mohamed Abdalla, Ahmed Abu Zaid Ahmed, Moatez Mohammed Elhassan

Asian Journal of Research in Zoology, Page 20-26
DOI: 10.9734/ajriz/2020/v3i430098

The present study was carried out to investigate some aspects of the biology of Oreochromis niloticus, it has ecological and economic importance, found in Khashm El-Girba market; here, we describe the length-weight relationships, condition factors and sex ratio of O. niloticus.  A total of 525 specimens were collected from August to November 2016. This study indicated that; the regression of length against weight was computed from the relationship W= a Lb; growth coefficient (b) value 2.880 ±0.430 less than 3, which indicate have negative allometric growth. The condition factors (K) is 3.866 ± 0.027; While the sex ratio was (M: F) 1:0.98.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbial Assessment of Fresh and Frozen (For Four Days) Marine Najil Fish (Plectropomus pessuliferus)

Khansaa Bdr Aldien Osman Ahmed, Samia Hamid Ahmed Hamid, Abdalla N. Elawad

Asian Journal of Research in Zoology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajriz/2020/v3i430095

The present study was conducted at Directorate General of Preventing Medicine and PHC, Epidemiology Dept, Ports and Quarantine Health Unit, Port Sudan, endeavors for Microbial evaluation (bacteriological load) of marine Najil fish (Plectropomus pessuliferus). And to determine the occurrence of some contaminated bacteria. 20 samples of Najil fish (P. Pessuliferus) were collected from Port Sudan fish market (in sterile plastic bags) and pre chilled with ice in thermostatic container. All the samples were tested immediately, and instantly froze for four days. Then the studied samples were tested microbiologically and results showed:For fresh fish total bacterial count (TBC) was (5.68×105) CFU/gm, and for frozen samples was (4.38×105) CFU/gm, respectively.The study concluded that, Najil fish (P. Pessuliferus) showed the highest level of contamination between fresh fish. While in frozen fish freeze seem have the higher effect (less number). And the results showed highly significant differences between fresh and frozen fish.The samples were also tested for contaminant bacteria and the result indicated the presence of Staphylococcus and E. coli, while the salmonella and vibrio were absent at each of it.

Open Access Original Research Article

Malaria and Nutritional Status of Children in Anambra State, Nigeria

Okeke, Obiageli Panthe, Ononye, Benjamin Uzonna, Imakwu, Cyril Ali, Uzochukwu, Chukwuebuka Uzochukwu, Amana, Gabriel Unekwu, Udeh, Nwabundo Peace, Aniekwe, Maduabuchi Isaac, Eyo, Joseph Effiong, Okafor, Fabian Chukwuemenam

Asian Journal of Research in Zoology, Page 61-74
DOI: 10.9734/ajriz/2020/v3i430100

Malaria is a major cause of morbidity especially in children less than five years of age. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between malaria infection and nutritional status of some purposely selected children aged 0–36 months from hospitals in Anambra State, Nigeria. Data were collected on nutritional status using anthropometric data – age, height, weight and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC). Malaria infection status was obtained through microscopic examination of thick films blood smears. The prevalence of malnutrition (weight-for-height Z - scores) among malaria uninfected in the community and hospital surveys was 26.7%   and 9.2% respectively, while the prevalence among the malaria parasite infected children was 21.4% and 7.4% in the community and hospital respectively. The average number of malnourished children with Z-scores <-2SD were slightly higher than WHO standard. More malaria infected boys had Z-scores <-2SD compared to the WHO standard. Prevalence of malnutrition based on MUAC among malaria parasite infected children was very high (100% and 98.1% in community and hospital, respectively). The average number of stunted (height-for-age Z-score) children in both community and hospital survey was very high compare to WHO standard.  It may be concluded that there is a high rate of malnutrition based on MUAC among malaria infected children in Anambra State.

Open Access Original Research Article

Atrophy and Muscular Fibrosis of Unknown Etiology during the Raising of Xiphophorus maculattus on an Ornamental Fish Farm

L. A. Romano, A. F. F. de Medeiros, V. F. Pedrosa

Asian Journal of Research in Zoology, Page 75-84
DOI: 10.9734/ajriz/2020/v3i430101

During the last two decades, the implementation of histochemical, immunohistochemical, electron microscopy, and recently developed molecular techniques has greatly contributed to our knowledge of skeletal muscle, both normal and sick. This article reports the presence of muscular atrophy and fibrosis in Xiphophorus maculatus from an ornamental fish farm. We do not know the origin of this muscular pathology and the purpose of this work is to summarize some of the findings with optical microscopy and electron microscopy shared by all. Although we cannot establish the etiology of this atrophy, we will try to correlate the ultrastructural alterations with the muscular histopathology. Muscular atrophy is a pathology characterized by loss of normal muscle mass. It is caused by a decrease in the total number of muscle cells or by a substantial reduction in the substance of individual muscle cells. It is likely that the cases reported here represent a pathology involving causes concurrent with nutritional problems and disorders of muscle innervation. Therefore, future studies should investigate further about the potential of neurodegenerative disorders. Several experimental models can use muscular atrophy and are suitable for investigations of the underlying mechanisms of this pathology.

Open Access Original Research Article

Status and Risk Factors Associated with Urinary Schistosomiasis among the Primary School Children in Some Communities of Shinkafi Local Government Area, Zamfara State, Nigeria

A. Y. Bala, Salau Shafa’ atu, H. M. Bandya, Mahmuda Aliyu, J. Suleiman

Asian Journal of Research in Zoology, Page 85-92
DOI: 10.9734/ajriz/2020/v3i430102

Urinary schistosomiasis among the primary school children remain among the major public health problems that affect cognitive domain of the pupils.  The present research was conducted to investigate the status and risk factors associated with urinary schistosomiasis among the community primary schools children in Shinkafi local government area of Zamfara State Nigeria. Four risk factors (Haematuria, source of water for domestic used, river visit and purpose of river visit) were considered to be associated with urinary schistosomiasis infection in the study area; four community primary schools were selected, 400 pupils were recruited for this study, each selected student was asked to produce terminal end urine in a screw cap universal sample bottle, the samples were analyzed with combi_10 reagent strips and then examined microscopically after filtration to count the number of Schistosoma eggs/10 mils of urine. One hundred and seventy three 173 pupils were found positive which gave the prevalence of 43.1%, higher significant infections was observed among the pupils that are using river (70.0%) as their source of drinking water; those that visit river (52.5%) and those that said fishing is their purpose of river visit (70.6%). The infection was not significant with regard to presence of haematuria in the urine samples. Pupils who used river as their source of drinking water had more than 2x likelihood of been infected than those that used other source of drinking water, those that visit rivers had more than 14x likelihood of having infection than those whose did not visit river, pupils who visited the river for fishing are 22.60 times likelihood of developing the infection than the pupils who visited the river for some other reasons. Conclusively, source of drinking water, river visit and purpose of river visits are the potential risk factor that increased likelihood of higher infection among the pupils in the study area.

Open Access Review Article

Review on the Bio-insecticidal Properties of Some Plant Secondary Metabolites: Types, Formulations, Modes of Action, Advantages and Limitations

Ukoroije, Rosemary Boate, Otayor, Richard Abalis

Asian Journal of Research in Zoology, Page 27-60
DOI: 10.9734/ajriz/2020/v3i430099

Bio-pesticides are biological derived agents that are usually applied in a manner similar to synthetic pesticides but achieve pest management in an environmental friendly way. Bioinsecticides have the advantages of been reportedly eco-friendly both to man and the environment, are target specific, lack problem of residue, least persistent in environment, locally available, easily processed and inexpensive, though with the limitation of requiring repeated applications for the achievement of optimal control of insect pests while enhancing crop protection. The mode of action of bioinsecticides on insects includes repellent action, antifeedant activity, oviposition deterrent properties, growth and development inhibition, toxicity, attractants, sterility and death. Hence, bioinsecticides can be included in integrated pest management programs for crop protection and insect pest control. The review on biopesticidal properties of some plant secondary metabolites in the leaves, stems, bark, fruits, flowers, cloves, rhizomes, grains and seeds of plants and their interference with the growth, feeding, reproduction of insect pestsfor pest management has been elaborated.