Open Access Short communication

Occurrence of an Abdominal Leiomyosarcoma in the Cyprinus carpio: Optical and Immunohistochemical Study

Luis Alberto Romano, Virgínia Fonseca Pedrosa

Asian Journal of Research in Zoology, Page 10-19
DOI: 10.9734/ajriz/2021/v4i230109

A capsulated nodular neoplasm measuring 9 cm in diameter, located between the swim bladder and the kidney sample of Cyprinuscarpio, was in laboratory. The neoplasm had a solid consistency in one sector and very adherent to the capsule. Histopathological examination of the neoplasm revealed a monotonous proliferation of spindle cells, and pleomorphic, sometimes in a vortex pattern and interspersed with collagen fibers. Cells had numerous well-oriented myofibrils giving them a deep red. The cytoplasm is eosinophilic and the nuclei are hyperchromatic located in the center with blunt or "cigar-shaped" ends. In the immunohistochemical examination, the tumor cells were positive for desmin, smooth muscle actin and K-47, the latter antibody showing significant cell proliferation. Due to histopathological and immunohistochemical findings, diagnosis was made with leiomyosarcoma.

Open Access Original Research Article

Social Behavior of Sotalia Fluviatilis (Gervais & Deville, 1853) (Cetacea, Delphinidae), in the Northern Channel of the Amazon River, Amapá, Brazil

Artur Lagoia Fonseca de Miranda, Andréa Soares de Araújo, Carlos Eduardo Costa Campos

Asian Journal of Research in Zoology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajriz/2021/v4i230108

Sotalia fluviatilis is known as “tucuxi” is endemic to the rivers of the Amazon basin, with aggregations of individuals at the mouths of rivers and canals, it is an almost endangered species and information about it is lacking in the state of Amapá. This study was aimed at monitoring the social behavior of S. fluviatilis in the northern channel of the Amazon River, Amapá, Brazil. Monitoring was carried out from a fixed point on the bank of the northern channel of the Amazon River, located in a Private Reserve of Natural Heritage. Ninety-six days of monitoring were carried out from a fixed point of observation, totaling 480 hours of sample effort. S. fluviatilis was frequently observed throughout the year in predominantly small groups formed mostly by two to three adult animals. Young individuals were observed in larger groups of four to six individuals, formed during activities such as feeding or for protection. Behavioral activities included slow and fast travel, which were in most cases associated with other behaviors, mainly foraging and socializing. The largest number of sightings of socialization occurred in the months of January and February, when river water levels are high. Studies on key species are essential for decision making, in order to optimize conservation strategies for this aquatic mammal in the Amapá. As a suggestion for conservation measures, it would be the distancing of vessels when they perceive a group of porpoises using the region, thus stimulating the conservation of the species.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of the Dexamethasone and the Difenihidramiana on the Degranulation of the Eosinophilic Granular Cell of Tilapia

Luis Alberto Romano, Virgínia Fonseca Pedrosa

Asian Journal of Research in Zoology, Page 20-26
DOI: 10.9734/ajriz/2021/v4i230110

The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between EGC degranulation in fish injected with formalin-killed Escherichia coli and the effect of dexamethasone, diphenhydramine supplied separately and before formalin-killed E. coli. We performed a quantitative analysis of the number of cell granules and demonstrated that: compared to the EGCs of animals, the injection of dead E. coli with formalin generated degranulation of the EGC, while the administration of dexamethasone alone did not show significant differences with control group animals. The administration of diphenhydramine alone did not show significant differences neither with the animals of the dexamethasone treated group nor with those of the control group. When dexamethasone was administered one hour before the E. coli injection, degranulation was apparently inhibited and the number of granules did not show significant differences either with the animals in the control group or with those treated with dexamethasone. Finally, when this group was compared with the group of animals that were only injected with E. coli, the differences were statistically significant. However, when diphenhydramine was administered one hour before E. coli injection, a critical inhibition of EGC degranulation was evidenced, with a marked increase in the number of granules. All this seems to show that dexamethasone can partially inhibit the release of substances that participate in the inflammatory process. Diphenhydramine, a recognized antihistamine, inhibited degranulation of EGCs. These results suggest that EGC can release histamine like mammalian mast cells.

Open Access Original Research Article

Abundance and Seasonality of Phytoplankton, Zooplankton and Anuran Species in Selected Wetlands of Kogi State, Nigeria

G. U. Amana, J. C. Ozougwu, I. C. Okoye, C. A. Imakwu, O. P. Okeke, J. C. Ogbodo, J. Idakwo

Asian Journal of Research in Zoology, Page 27-36
DOI: 10.9734/ajriz/2021/v4i230111

Phytoplankton, Zooplankton and anurans play vital role in the working of wetland ecosystems as they form its dynamic food web. This study was designed to determine the abundance and seasonality of Phytoplankton, Zooplankton and Anuran species in selected wetlands of Kogi State, Nigeria. The study was performed in Abu’ja wetland in Dekina Local Government area and Egwubi seasonal wetland in Ejule, Ofu Local Government area of Kogi state. From each sampled wetlands planktons were collected with plankton net at the sites. Overall, 854 specimens of anurans, 584 from Abu’ja and 270 from Egwubi sites were collected within a period of eighteen months. The abundance of phytoplankton, zooplankton and anuran species were computed. Abundance was computed as a proportion of numbers of organisms in a group to the summation of the total number in all the groups being considered. Simpson’s index (Dominance), Gini-Simpson's, Shannon-Wiener index, Berger-Parker index, Margalef’s index, Menhinick’s index, Fisher alpha, Equitability index, Brillouin index and Chao index were all calculated following standard methods. The data collected was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0, PAST version 3.14 and Microsoft Office. Level of significance was p < 0.05. Anuran species found in both wetlands included Amietophrymus regularis, A. maculatus and Hoplobatracchus occipitalis. Phytoplankton species encountered in both study stations include Oscilatoria spp, Anabaenia spp, Anacystis spp, Spirogyra spp, Oedogonium spp, Savicular spp and Euglena spp. Zooplanktons encountered include Epiphanes spp, Philodina spp, Synchata spp, Poliathra spp, Holopedium spp, Daphnia spp, Alona spp and Bosmina spp. The abundance and seasonality of phytoplankton, zooplankton and anurans in the selected wetlands studied in Kogi state, Nigeria showed that the organisms abundance are highly influenced by the seasons in Kogi State, with its peak abundance in rainy season and very low abundance in dry season.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Microbial Contamination of Some Snacks: A Case Study of Lagos Mainland, Lagos State, Nigeria

O. P. Okeke, K. O. Yusuf, B. U. Ononye, N. P. Udeh, G. C. Ndudim

Asian Journal of Research in Zoology, Page 37-45
DOI: 10.9734/ajriz/2021/v4i230113

This study was undertaken to evaluate the microbial contamination of some locally prepared snacks sold by street vendors in Lagos mainland, Lagos State, Nigeria. A total of (20) twenty snack samples- Meat-pie, Sausage roll, Egg roll, Puff puff and Doughnut were aseptically purchased in a sterilized polythene bags from four different locations in Lagos Mainland Local Government Area. The snacks were analyzed by standard microbiological methods using Bergey’s manual to determine the colony-forming units per gram, to isolate and determine the number of microbiological population contaminants. Unilag showed the bacteria count on snacks as follows: Meat-pie 1.50 × 106 cfu/ g), Sausage 2.20× 106 cfu/ g, Doughnut 3.20× 105 cfu/ g, Puffpuff 1.58x 106 cfµ/ g and Egg roll 9.80x105 cfµ/ g. At Yaba - Meat pie had bacteria count of 1.82x102cfµ / g, Sausage 7.00x101cfµ / g, Doughnut 1.09x 102 cfµ /g, Puff puff 3.64x104 cfµ/ g and Egg roll 5.00x101 cfµ/g.  Snacks from Oyingbo had no growth on Meat pie, Doughnut and Puff puff but had bacteria cou nts on Sausage (1.00x102) and on Egg roll (1.95× 105 cfµ/ g).At Abule-Oja- Meat pie had bacteria count of 9.75x104 cfµ/ g, Puff puff 1.65x105 cfµ/ g and Egg roll 1.95x105 cfu/ g.The location with lowest bacteria count was Oyingbo which had no growth on a Meat pie, Doughnut and Puff puff, but had on Sausage 1.00x102 cfµ/ g and Egg roll 9.60x102 cfµ/ g. There were no coliforms in all the locations. Bacteria percentage range was 10.52%   to 36.84%while Fungi percentage range was 0.71% - 37.59%. Four bacteria and seven fungi were identified: Bacillus cereus, Bacillus substillis, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus delbruckii with Aspergillus niger, Penicillium notatum, Trichoderma spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Fusarium spp. and Aspergillus flavus. Bacillus cereus had the highest prevalence of 36.84%, Bacillus substillis 31.58%, Staphylococcus aureus 21.05% and Lactobacillus delbruckii 10.52%. Bacillus species were present at all sampled sites. It is concluded that the quality of these snacks   can be improved by following quality control protocol and good manufacturing practices (GMP) in food.