Open Access Short communication

First Record of Jungle Babbler Argya striata Feeding on House Gecko Hemidactylus sp.

Soham Mukherjee, Akanksha Mukherjee

Asian Journal of Research in Zoology, Page 34-36
DOI: 10.9734/ajriz/2021/v4i330117

We report the first record of jungle babbler Argya striata feeding on house gecko Hemidactylus sp. in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. On the morning of 09th October 2018, a small group of jungle babblers consisting of six adults and two fledglings were observed in and around plants pots and compost bins on the roof of author’s residence. A juvenile house gecko Hemidactylus sp. appeared to have incidentally flushed out of a crevice by the foraging birds. It was immediately attacked by two adults and was killed quickly by heavy pecking on gecko’s body. The gecko’s tail was quickly fed upon by one of the two attacking birds after tail autotomy. Once the gecko stopped moving, the two attacking birds tried consuming the gecko whole but soon dropped it as it appeared to be too big to swallow the whole body. They started pecking out small pieces from the head and stomach area. At one point, the two birds held the gecko from two places, one from the head and the other held a front limb and started to tug. Other members of the group were uninterested in the entire event and did not participate. The two attacking birds continued pecking out small pieces until they weren’t hungry anymore. They left the remaining body and joined the resting members of the group.

Open Access Original Research Article

Acute Toxicity of Hexavalent Chromium on Behavioural Parameters and Histopathology Damages in Freshwater Common Carp, Cyprinus carpio

T. Deepak, G. B. Sanjay, C. S. Shivakumar

Asian Journal of Research in Zoology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajriz/2021/v4i330114

Water sources of almost all regions in India are carrying the unbearable burden of dangerous pollutants. The release of waste products and anthropogenic wastes run-off has contributed to aquatic pollution. The environment has become a storehouse for chemical pollutant which infiltrate into the aquatic environment, including estuarine, thus immobilizing the aquatic biota, among the heavy metals. Chromium is a heavy metal which has both beneficial and harmful effect on organisms. It is highly toxic and carcinogenic. Many industries are disposing of chemical pollutants to the water. These disposals contain many chemicals, including Chromium. The purpose of this review was to check the accumulation and concentration of heavy metals in different organs of freshwater fishes that come in contact with the water contaminated with heavy metals. The subjected fish were exposed to Chromium (Cr) at the sub-lethal level at a concentration of 40mg/L in 96 hours. During the observation period, the fishes shown some behavioral changes like erratic swimming, slow motility, suffocation, and the scales become thin and decolorized. In the gill region, the gill filaments become swollen, and gill rackers become thick, and curling of lamellae was noticed, and it is caused due to the Chromium build-upon gills. At the region of the caudal fin, permanent bending of the tail was observed. The Chromium also affects other vital organs like the spleen and gut region. LC50 was found in 96 hours. The result indicates that Chromium is highly toxic and has deleterious effects on aquatic life. Humans are also affected by the intake of fishes for primary people of those areas where the leading food is fish.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Studies of Growth Performance of Rabbits (Ornyctolagus cunniculus) Fed on Rabbit Feeds and Diverse Foodstuff in Captivity

N. P. Udeh, J. J. Okeke, O. P. Okeke, C. Obudulu, K. P. Okafor

Asian Journal of Research in Zoology, Page 9-17
DOI: 10.9734/ajriz/2021/v4i330115

The study was carried out to ascertain ways to increase protein for the teeming population of Nigerians. The specific objectives were to determine the growth performance of rabbits fed on rabbit feed and combination of agricultural by-product with forages and compare their feed utilization. It investigated the growth performances of rabbits; (Orynctolagus cuniculus) fed diverse ration (types A and B) in captivity for 12 weeks. A total of eighteen (18) weaner rabbits with an average initial weight of 350g – 370g and between 5 and 6 weeks old, were allotted into two treatments. Each treatment had three rabbits and three replicate in a completely randomized design. Rabbits in treatment one (A) were fed rabbit feed while the treatment two (B) were fed forage and diverse foodstuffs. Proximate analysis of these food ration types A and B showed that the ration type B was high in crude protein (23.88%), carbohydrate (53.29%) and fat (8.60%) and ration type A had the lowest crude protein (20.76%), carbohydrate, (52.49%) and fat (3.15%). Studies on the indices of ration utilization and growth performances showed that feed intake was highest in rabbit fed ration type A (94.28g) and lowest in ration B (90.98g). The diverse ration types although portrayed good weight gain, the highest was in rabbit fed ration type B (760.00g) and lowest in ration A (681.00g) and ration type B was significantly (p<0.05) different from ration A. The percentage weight gain and specific growth rate were highest in ration type B (210.50%), (4.097) and lowest in ration A (189.10%), (3.841). The best food conversion ratio was recorded for the rabbit fed ration type B (10.07g) and least in ration A (11.64g) and ration type A was significantly (p<0.05) different from ration B. Digestibility was highest in rabbit fed Ration A (93.33g) and lowest in ration B (92.67g) and were significantly different (p<0.05) from each other. The protein intake of ration B (21.73) was higher than those of ration A (19.57). The result also showed that the protein efficiency ratio of ration type A and B was not significantly different (p>0.05) from each other. Looking at the proximate composition of the diverse rations and indices of ration utilization, ration type B portrayed optimal nutrient content for rabbit growth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ethnozoological Study on Ichthyotherapy among the Suku People (Feshi Territory, Kwango Province), Democratic Republic of the Congo

Victor Pwema Kiamfu, Patience Kivudi, Willy Lusasi Swana, Santos Kavumbu Mutanda, Clément Munganga Kilingwa, Angélique Osobo Yakolina, Koto-Te-Nyiwa Ngbolua, Jean-Claude Micha

Asian Journal of Research in Zoology, Page 18-33
DOI: 10.9734/ajriz/2021/v4i330116

A survey was conducted from August 15, 2019 to February 20, 2020 among 67 traditional healers in order to know the species of fish that are used in the composition of traditional medicines used to treat some diseases in the Kambundi-Nganga Group, Ganaketi Sector, Feshi Territory in Kwango (DR Congo). The results obtained show that seventeen (17) species of fish belonging to 14 genera, 12 families and 8 orders are used by traditional healers to treat 24 pathologies. The fish of the order Siluriformes offer eight (8) species of fish which are used in the preparation of medicines for treating diseases. The fish species frequently used are respectively: Parauchenoglanis punctatus (31.3%), Clarias ebriensis and Gymnallabes typus representing respectively 16.4% and Malapterurus electricus (12%). It is followed by the order of Characiformes and Perciformes with respectively two species of fish. Fish of the orders Osteoglossiformes, Channiformes, Cyprinodontiformes, Symbranchiformes and Cypriniformes are represented by one species. The most treated pathologies are: bronchitis, asthma, dysmenorrhea and rheumatism. The most used parts of the fish are bones (32%), head bones (24%), fins (19%), scales (6%) or sometimes the whole fish (15%). It is therefore desirable that in-depth chemical and pharmacological studies be conducted in order to scientifically validate the use of fish in ichthyotherapy and to identify the active principles with therapeutic value for each species.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical Characteristics and Heavy Metals Contents in Soils and Cassava Plants from Farmlands within Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State

N. P. Udeh, A. C. Ikegwuonu, O. A. Okeke, C. Obudulu, K. P. Okafor, C. C. Egwuagu

Asian Journal of Research in Zoology, Page 37-43
DOI: 10.9734/ajriz/2021/v4i330118

Soil samples and cassava tubers collected from farmlands within Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka vicinity were analyzed for their heavy metal levels using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) in order to assess their levels of contamination on the environment as a result of excessive fertilizers and automobile emission. Physiochemical properties of the soil samples were determined using standard methods. The soil pH had a mean value of 6.27 ± 0.07, 6.10 ± 0.06 and 6.57 ± 0.03 respectively indicating that the soils were slightly acidic to neutrality. Total organic carbon and nitrate mean values were 105.20 ± 6.20, 95.75 ± 9.57 and 94.6 ± 2.27 and 138.07 ± 12.09, 149.35 ± 14.25 and 149.20 ± 1.17 respectively showing presence of some organic matters. The mean levels of heavy metals in the soil samples were 0.01 ± 0.01, 0.05 ± 0.03 and 0.05 ± 0.03 for lead (Pb), 0.24 ± 0.16, 0.001 ± 0.001 and 0.001 ± 0.000 for cadmium (Cd) and 0.00 ± 0.00, 0.010 ± 0.006 and 0.001 ± 0.001 for chromium (Cr). These metals levels were in the abundance trend of Pb>Cd> Cr. The mean metal concentrations obtained in the cassava tubers respectively were 0.001 ± 0.001, 0.001 ± 0.001 and 0.005 ± 0.005 for lead (Pb), 0.000 ± 0.000, 0.0003 ± 0.0003 and 0.000 ± 0.000 for cadmium (Cd) and 0.002 ± 0.002, 0.000 ± 0.000 and 0.002 ± 0.002 for chromium (Cr). These metals levels were in the abundance trend of Pb> Cr > Cd. For both the soil and cassava samples, there were no significant variations in the heavy metal concentrations and also in physicochemical parameter except for pH; this showed that there is low heavy metal enrichment in the soils studied. Based on the study, the following heavy metals (Pb, Cd, and Cr) falls within the Codex maximum permissible limits 0.1mg/l or ppm expect soil cadmium in science village which is above the Codex limit. The overall results showed that the farmlands (on soils and cassava tuber) appear to be free from poisoning or some metal enrichment and safe for agricultural purposes and also safe for human health and consumption.