Open Access Letter to the Editor
The “Type of Article” of this paper is “Letter to the Editor”. This paper discuses about: “The Conclusion of ‘Lateral Flow between Bald and Vegetation Patches Induces the Degradation of Alpine Meadow in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau’ is Inaccurate”. No formal abstract is available. Readers are requested to read the full article.
Open Access Original Research Article
Four-way olfactometer was used to evaluate Laboratory repellency activities of Azadirachta indica, Jatropha curcas and Dennitia tripetala oil extracts on Tribolium castaneum at 10µl of each oil. Each arm of the olfactometer served as treatment arm with the 3 arms accommodating the 3 test substances, respectively and the 4th arm as control. Various concentrations (1, 2 and 3% V/V) of the essential oils were evaluated for fumigant and contact toxicity against T. castaneum at 8, 16 and 24 hours durations. The results obtained showed that T. castaneum spent significantly (p<0.05) more time (min) in the control arm than the 3 arms accommodating the essential oils. Similarly, significantly (p<0.05) more number of entries were made by the insect into the control arm compared with the test arms. The application of the essential oils significantly (p<0.05) caused higher mortality at 8, 16 and 24hrs than the control for both fumigant and contact tests. The mortality of the T. castaneum increased with increase in the concentration of the essential oils. The 3% concentrations of the oil extracts significantly caused the highest mortality, 67.23±8.72, 69.22± 18.74 and 79.55±9.29% by A. indica, D. tripetala and J. curcas, respectively after 24 hours application in fumigant test. The result also indicated that the contact application of A. indica, D. tripetala and J. curcas at 3% concentrations resulted in 63.07±6.55, 70.10±2.51 and 67.4±4.06% mortality of T. castaneum, respectively. The results suggest that the oil extracts from A. indica, J. curcas and D. tripetala can be used for effective management of T. castaneum infesting stored products.
Open Access Original Research Article
The study was carried out to investigate the Microbiological quality of microorganisms associated with ready-to-eat bush meat sold at Rumuokoro market in Rivers state. Totally 24 samples were collected and analyzed using different media such as Nutrient agar for Total aerobic plate count (TAPC), MacConkey agar for the coliform count, Eosin methylene blue for Escherichia coli (EC), and Potato Dextrose Agar for Fungal count (FC) and ten (10) fold serial dilution was used. Staphylococcus spp, Pseudomonas spp, Bacillus spp, and Escherichia coli were isolated. The total aerobic plate count (TAPC), E. coli count (EC)-Coliform count (CC), and Fungal count (FC) isolated from antelope were higher when compared to grass-cutter so there was a significant difference (P <0.005). The occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from antelope (26.9%) was higher when compared to grass- cutter (25.0%). However the occurrence of Pseudomonas spp and Bacillus spp isolated from Antelope (23.1% and 30.8%) were higher when compared to grass- cutter (12.5% and 18.5%) while the occurrence of the above organisms isolated on both Antelope is significantly difference (P<0.005) from grass cutter. But the occurrence of Aspergillus spp and Penicillium spp were higher in grass cutter sample (57.1%) and (42.9%) compared to antelope (55.6%) and (44.4%) respectively, although the mean difference was statistically significant (P<0.005) so there was significant difference. It is hereby recommended that most handlers should always wash hands before and after handling the meat as improper hand washing is the number one cause of food borne illness. Consumers of such meat should learn food hygiene practices such as, soaking the meat in warm salt solution, proper washing and well cooked before consumption.