Open Access Short Research Article

Formation and Diachronic Changes of Placental Scars in the House Shrew (Suncus murinus)

Kyosuke Nakano, Kazuyuki Mekada

Asian Journal of Research in Zoology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajriz/2018/v1i11100

In the present study, diachronic changes in fresh and stained placental scars of postpartum house shrews (Suncus murinus) were studied and compared with the actual number of offspring. In non- stained fresh uteri, the placental scars were barely visible externally, except in some exceptional cases. In stained uteri, placental scars were observed in all specimens, even in the oldest animals evaluated (12 months postpartum). The study estimated the number of offspring and time of parturition using the degree of staining in the scars and the change in their forms.  As the time postpartum increased, the stained placental scars became discoloured and shrank, making it difficult to distinguish between the scars from normal parturition and those that formed following halted development after implantation. Placental scars provided an invaluable method for estimating the female reproductive state in wild mammals. In captive house shrews, however, placental scars were barely detected in non- stained fresh uteri. Moreover, placental scars were observed in older animals at 12 months postpartum. It can be concluded that, it is not feasible to estimate the number of offspring or time of parturition based on placental scars in wild shrews, which are believed to undergo multiple parturitions a year.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of Insect Pest Species of Maize, Their Infestation and Damage Levels at Ziway Dugda Woreda, Arsi Zone, Ethiopia

Lemmessa Gemmeda, Emana Getu

Asian Journal of Research in Zoology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajriz/2018/v1i11087

The survey was carried out in 2017 main cropping season to support farmers for correct insect pest identification. Three Kebeles, Hallo, Sambaro and Herara with five farmer’s fields randomly selected. Ten representative plants were taken from each field. Data on mean larval density per plant, percentage leaf infestation and damage levels were assessed. Results from mean larval density per plant showed that significant difference between insect species (R2= 0.96, Pr (>|Z|=0.013) where the highest 1.55-2.30 was recorded from C. partellus. There was a significant difference between C. partellus and M. trapezalis; S. frugiperda and M. trapezalis in percentage leaf infestation (R2=0.75, Pr. (>|Z|=2e-16) where, the highest were recorded from C. partellus and S. frugiperda representing 50-90% and 40-90% respectively. From the above, C. partellus and S. frugiperda were at risk, as a result insecticide was recommended. M. trapezalis showed a lower infestation level so that hand picking was more economical than use of insecticide. Hence, registration and detail molecular identification will be needed as M. trapezals is the first record on maize crop in Ethiopia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium and Its Intermediate Hosts in Makurdi Metropolis

V. U. Obisike, E. U. Amuta, P. S. Adaaku

Asian Journal of Research in Zoology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajriz/2018/v1i11093

Introduction: Urinary Schistosomiasis (US) is a chronic water-borne infection caused by digenetic trematode belonging to the genus schistosoma, it is generally caused by Schistosoma haematobium. Bulinus globosus is a species of a tropical freshwater snail that acts as an intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium. Aim: The study was aimed at ascertaining the prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium infection and to describe its intermediate hosts among school children in Makurdi.

Methodology: Snails were collected by hand picking and scooping net methods. An epidemiological survey research on urinary Schistosomiasis was undertaken from September to November 2017 among students that volunteered in the selected schools within Makurdi metropolis. A total of 97 freshwater snails were collected and 200 urine samples involving pupils aged between 5 to 18 years were collected and analyzed for the eggs of Schistosoma haematobium by microscopy using Urine Syringe Filtration Technique (USFT). Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 20. Chi-square test was used to determine the significant difference between variables.

Results: Out of the 97 species of freshwater snails that were caught 41(42.3%) was Bulinus spp. Of the 200 urine samples analyzed, 49(24.5%) were found to be infected with ova of S. haematobium. The infection was higher among males 30(25.6%) than females 19(22.9%) although the difference was not statistically significant (χ2CAL=0.19, χ2TAB=3.84). The prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium infection among school children in relation to age showed that ages 15-19 years had the highest prevalence 13(38.2%)  and ages 5-9 had the lowest prevalence 3(8.5%). The statistical analysis also revealed that there is no significant difference (8.302) in Schistosoma haematobium infection among the four schools in the study area. The presence of many snail species especially the Bulinus spp and increased contact time with the Schistosoma haematobium infested freshwater habitat was thought to be responsible for the prevalence of the disease in the area. Finding of this study shows that urinary Schistosomiasis was found to have a low prevalence in the area studied and there is the need to intensified integrated control measures to reduce or completely eradicate the disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molluscicidal Potential of Column Purified Fractions of Allium cepa against Intermediate Host of Urinary Schistosomiasis (Bulinus globosus) in Sokoto, Nigeria

J. Suleiman, K. Singh, A. Y. Bala, M. T. Muhammad, M. S. Yakubu

Asian Journal of Research in Zoology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajriz/2018/v1i129666

Potential of column purified fractions of Allium cepa bulb against intermediate hosts of urinary schistosomiasis (Bulinus globosus) was conducted in laboratory condition. The fresh bulbs of A. cepa were purchased from Ramin Kura market of Sokoto, identified and authenticated by a taxonomist. The bulbs were sliced into pieces, air dried and powdered. Extracts were obtained using methanol as polar then purified with silica gel as a stationary phase while N-hexane and ethyl acetate (1:1) as the mobile phase. Thirteen fractions each fraction containing 10 ml of the effluent was collected, the collected extracts were left open for evaporation for 48 hours. Ten adult B. globosus were immersed in 3liters of water containing different concentrations of the fraction and each treatment was replicated three times with control in the same condition without treatment, observations were recorded after 24 hours up to 96 hours. The toxicity experiment showed that fractions (F7, F8, F6 and F9) were most toxic fractions, LC50 after 96 hours was 19.371 mg/l. based on findings from this research it can be concluded that, A. Cepa was very potent and can be used for control of B. globosus in order to prevent urinary schistosomiasis infection in endemic areas and drugs industries may use the extracts of these plants for production of molluscicides.

Open Access Original Research Article

First Record of Genus Goniodes Nitzsch, 1818 (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae) on Peafowl (Galliformes: Phasianidae) from Pakistan

Saima Naz, Syed Anser Rizvi

Asian Journal of Research in Zoology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajriz/2018/v1i129670

Aims: To examine and explore chewing lice (Phthiraptera) species found in Peafowls in Pakistan. To find out more species and compare these species with previously known species of chewing lice found on Peafowls.

Study Design: The genus Goniodes Nitzsch, 1818 is specifically found on gallinaceous hosts all over the world, represented by 100 species. It is very clearly identifiable for its circumfasciate head and somehow angulated temples of the head, antennae always heteromorphic; thorax and abdomen also very peculiar in its morphology, the abdominal segment I always larger and expanded laterally. Parasitological investigation of Peafowls was undertaken to find out the chewing lice infestation in Sindh, Pakistan.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Zoology, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan. Between 2016 and 2017.

Methodology: Peafowl, Pavo cristatus L. 1758 was examined during the present study for chewing lice collection; chewing lice were processed for the permanent mount through the standard method and were studied under high magnification microscope for illustration and identification.

Results: During the examination of chewing lice, the genus Goniodes was recovered from Pavo cristatus for the first time from Sindh province, Pakistan. Out of 18 peafowls, seven were infested, contained 28 specimens of two species, G. dissimilis Denny 1842 and G. meinertzhageni Clay 1940 were isolated from Thatta, Karachi, Jamshoro, Hyderabad and Mirpur Khas districts of Sindh. Both species G. dissimilis and G. meinertzhageni were recorded first time from Pakistan, hence put on new record at country level for Indian Peafowl. A key for the identification of all Goniodes species found on the peafowl has also been presented along with their detailed morphological descriptions and morphometric features.

Conclusion: Two species of chewing lice of the genus Goniodes were collected and identified and were compared with each other to clarify their morpho-taxonomical characteristics in both species.